In an effort to treat the enormous number of soldiers wounded during the Civil War, rapid advancements were made in American medicine. This presentation will focus on the background, conditions, and personnel that led to these advancements. Dr. D’Onofrio will present this talk in the guise of Ohio Civil War Surgeon General, Robert Nelson Barr, in period uniform. His talk will be reflection of Dr. Barr’s thoughts a few months after the Civil War ended. Peter D’Onofrio is the president of The Society of Civil War Surgeons, the largest non-profit, international, educational organization dedicated to the study and preservation of Civil War era medicine and surgery.